Their settlements in southern Mindanao, the northern peninsula of Sulawesi, and North Maluku attest to their extensive overseas voyages. We know that the Belgian king found his colony in Africa, when in 1885 he became master of the Congo Free State, which he considered as his private enterprise (Greindl 1962). The Philippines and Indonesia have overlapping EEZs in the Mindanao and Celebes seas, and in the southern section of the Philippine Sea in the Pacific Ocean. 22With the disappearance of Makassar from the scene, the Dutch then turned against the Spaniards. 5The scarcity of information suggests that contacts must have been very rare, indeed. Warren has calculated that a total of 200,000 to 300,000 people were transported as slaves to Sulu between 1770 and 1870 (Warren 1981: 208). 30By virtue of Sulu’s character as a segmentary state, local chiefs (datu) were competing to equip fleets of ships to venture through island Southeast Asia. The boundary line between British and Dutch territory in North Borneo was determined by an 1891 Anglo-Dutch convention, and the present frontier was established in 1912 by a joint survey team of the two colonial powers (Sturler 1881, Irwin 1955: chapter X, Tarling 1978: 166, Hunter 1963). And among them, Sulu was the first to develop as a maritime power of more than local proportions, later followed by Maguindanao. At 2,800 meters (1.74 miles) deep, the vehicle came upon an PELLIOT, P., 1904, “Deux itinéraires de Chine en Inde à la fin du viiie siècle,” BEFEO, 4: 131-413. Their tools and techniques ranged from simple and low-tech-scuba divers using jars to capture delicate creatures—to sophisticated tools that use laser light to visualize small animals. Moreover, they thought that a colony of convicts nearby, close to the center of “pirate” villages, would endanger the security of the region. Diogo de Magelhães reported having baptized 1,500 people in Manado, and in Siau the king and 2,500 of his subjects became Christians. INDO-PACIFIC INSIGHT SERIES Philippines: Shifting Tides in the Sulu-Celebes Sea Reginald Ramos, Perth USAsia CentreVolume 4, April 2017 The Sulu-Celebes Sea, commonly known as the tri-border area, has been warned as a スールー海（スールーかい、英: Sulu Sea 、またはスル海）は、東南アジアにある西太平洋の一海域。 概要 フィリピンの南西、マレーシアの北東に位置する。 北西はパラワン島で南シナ海と、南東はスールー諸島でセレベス海と隔てられている。 It presents a firm evidence that Islam had then begun to spread to this part of the world, to become the dominant religion of most of the coastal ethnic groups in the area (Harrisson & Harrisson 1971: 229). Military forces from the Philippines and Indonesia will begin joint patrols in the Celebes Sea from Thursday, July 6, 2017. Approches pluridisciplinaires, La mer au-delà des frontières: le lien entre les pays d’Asie du Sud-Est, Paysages biographiques du migrant asiatique, Lectures anthropologiques de l'éthique entrepreneuriale, Rituels, territoires et pouvoirs dans les marges sino-indiennes, La ville thaïe กรุงเทพฯ [Krungthep, etc. 24After the elimination of Spanish competition, relations between Ternate and the VOC became strained, not least on account of the latter’s aggressive monopolistic policy. Military forces from the Philippines and Indonesia will begin joint patrols in the Celebes Sea from Thursday, July 6, 2017. (Photo by Michael Aw), Lying just north of the equator, the Celebes Sea is the center of the most biologically diverse area of the world’s ocean. A team of U.S. and Filipino marine scientists embarked on the “Inner Space Speciation Project,” supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Office of Ocean Exploration, the National Geographic Society, the WHOI Ocean Life Institute, and the New England Aquarium. Perhaps this was only a show of force, but the subsequent visit of the corvette Friedrich under Captain Oesterreicher’s command in 1878 was of a more serious nature. . He has conducted more than 60 scientific expeditions in the Arctic, Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. are too old to be linked with historic ethnic groups of the area. door Bataviaasch Genootschap, 77: 317-487. Her work frequently takes her underwater using remotely operated vehicles and SCUBA and carries her to the far corners of the world. As a result, all of the water entering the Celebes Sea stays shallow and flows out of the Celebes Sea through the Makassar Strait, between the islands of Borneo and Sulawesi. Mag. He was sent from Malaka to replace Dom Garcia Henriques as capitão of Ternate. However, Nimmo—supported by Spoehr—was of the opinion that the seafaring skills of the Samal was a later development from their earlier land-oriented way of living, as they also had a certain degree of skill in making pottery. 10Fragmentation is apparently a distinctive feature of the area, although centripetal forces were also in operation. There were three occasions in the course of the nineteenth century when some Belgians showed some interest in the area, viz. Radiolarians make such structures out of glass-like slivers of silica. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2014. The Sulu-Celebes Sea (called “The Tri-Border Area: TBA” in this report), surrounded by Indonesia, the Philippines and Malaysia, is regarded as not only a center of commerce and trade and sea lanes of communication, but also a On this expedition, Cabell Davis, WHOI biologist and director of the WHOI Ocean Life Institute, tested a new holographic instrument that uses laser light to create digital holograms of plankton. NARDIN, D., 1978, “Les Français à Basilan, un projet de colonisation avorté,” Archipel, 15: 29-40. REUTERS MANILA The Philippines and Indonesia will jointly patrol the Celebes Sea this week to stop Islamist militants reaching the Philippines' restive southern island of Mindanao, where rebels have seized a city, an army spokesman said on Sunday. Indonesia and the Philippines have established a … Where the Indian and Pacific Oceans meet lies a region known as the “coral triangle”—a region of thousands of islands encompassing the Philippines, Indonesia, parts of Malaysia. He transferred this right to the American Trading Company of Borneo, established by Joseph W. Torrey and Thomas B. Harris, in cooperation with a few Chinese traders in Hong Kong. PTAK, R., 1998, “Südostasiens Meere nach chinesischen Quellen,” Archipel, 56: 5-30. The Bajau tongue belongs to the Samal language family. The author of numerous books, scientific papers, and articles, he has been featured in several National Geographic television programs, including “Secrets of the Titanic” a five-part mini-series, “Alien Deep with Bob Ballard.” and, in 2019, “Expedition Amelia.” He was a special advisor to Steve Spielberg on the futuristic television show seaQuest DSV. Much of its land area is comprised of the islands Mindaneo and Luzon. And soon, this “Moluccan problem” became irrelevant, as in 1575 the Portuguese were driven out of Maluku by the Sultan of Ternate (Boxer 1969: 64). HENLEY, D., 2002, Jealousy and Justice: The indigenous roots of colonial rule in northern Sulawesi, Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij. The corvette was sent to make observations on the spot, but her crew, landing in the delta of the Sebuku River, on the eastern coast of Kalimantan, came under attack by a group of Bajau from Omaddal Island. 18It was also as a deterrent against Dutch encroachments that the Spaniards built a fort in Zamboanga in 1635. Hence the latter are probably descendants of migrants (speaking Austronesian languages) from a later period (Spoehr 1973: 273-274). But they eventually filed strong protests against Italy, because the latter had been in touch with the British government, implying a recognition of the British position in this part of the island. He has also discovered hydrothermal vents and “black smokers” in the Galapagos Rift and East Pacific Rise in 1977 and 1979. Fragmentation and internecine warfare among the local chiefs allowed the Spaniards to withstand attacks by Muslim forces (Majul 1973: chapter 6). He has been a scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution since 2001. However, a system of indirect rule was established, as local government was conducted through traditional rulers, who were forbidden to enter into relations with foreign powers. Finally, a four-week expedition led by Larry Madin, a biologist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and National Geographic Society senior photographer Emory Kristof was launched aboard the Philippine vessel Hydrographer Presbitero in September 2007. A punitive expedition was sent, and this time the Spaniards in Manila were alerted and filed strong protests against the French. Surrounding the islands are warm, shallow seas that separate deep ocean basins that drop down to as much as 5,000 meters. (Photo by Larry Madin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), After a nighttime descent to deep water of the Celebes Sea to take video and samples, the MaxRover ROV, which normally came up alongside the ship, needed an assist to get back on board. and annot. Kirstin is currently Principal Investigator for an interdisciplinary project on shipwrecks in Stellwagen National Marine Sanctuary, including the steamship Portland, often termed “New England’s Titanic.” This project uses cutting-edge technology to construct 3D photogrammetric models of the Portland and other wrecks for archaeological and biological research and resource management. But Makassar was defeated by the VOC with Ternate’s help, and in 1667 the Treaty of Bungaya stipulated that Makassar had to withdraw from North Sulawesi.1. 36But the case of Sulu was a different matter, and the western boundary became an issue for diplomatic debates. reveals some historic episodes of certain ethnic groups (Harrisson & Harrisson 1971: 68-116, Spoehr 1973: 106-111, Aebersold 1959: 372-389, Schwarz 1907, Bellwood 1976, Santoso 1999: 4). WOLTERS, O.W., 1967, Early Indonesian Commerce: A study of the origins of Srivijaya, Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 27Compared with the sultanate of Maguindanao (and the inland kingdom of Buayan), Sulu was relatively more centralized and its political institutions were heavily influenced by those of the countries in the western part of the Malay Archipelago, whereas Maguindanao underwent influences from Ternate. 40In 1868, the Austrian government sent a naval expedition to East Asia, which was followed by the British with suspicion. From about the beginning of the fifteenth century comes the earliest indigenous text in east Sabah, written in Jawi (i.e., Arabic script) in the Idahan language. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/moussons/2445 ; DOI : https://doi.org/10.4000/moussons.2445. The main problem for readers of Chinese texts, however, is to discover the exact location of sinicized toponyms. from the University of Auckland, and Ph.D. from James Cook University, North Queensland, Australia. 6The presence of cloves in Hainan could be an indication that these spices were imported directly from Maluku, thus proving a sea route through the Celebes Sea, perhaps by way of Sulu. The Celebes Sea /ˈsɛləˌbiːz/ (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi, Filipino: Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahasa Peninsula, and on the west by northern Kalimantan in Indonesia. Sulu Archipelago, archipelago comprising hundreds of volcanic and coral islands and numerous rocks and reefs in the southwestern Philippines.A double island chain, it extends 170 miles (270 km) southwest from Basilan island off southwestern Mindanao and ends near the eastern shores of … The demarcation line in the Atlantic was clearly defined (although the delineation of frontiers between Spanish and Portuguese South America was only settled by the Treaty of Madrid in 1750) but, in the Pacific, the situation was rather vague. In the course of the sixteenth century, the South Sulawesi kingdom of “Makassar” (actually a twin kingdom consisting of Gowa and Tallo) had grown in importance and, by the seventeenth century, its influence had spread northward. But intensive as well as extensive overseas trade for the Chinese market only developed after the Ming era. Pero Mascarenhas visited Manado to solidify the local Christian community, and in Kolongan (Sangir islands) he was well received, and baptized the whole population (Jacobs 1974: 413-416, 534-536). The boundary in the eastern part was more or less fixed, of course, without taking into consideration the indigenous powers’ traditional rights. MAJUL, C.A., 1973, Muslims in the Philippines, Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press, for the Asian Center. She is currently training for the first post-certification mission of Boeing’s Starliner spacecraft – the second crewed flight for that vehicle – and her third long duration mission aboard the International Space Station. GODÉE MOLSBERGEN, E.C., 1928, Geschiedenis van de Minahassa tot 1829, Weltevreden: Landsdrukkerrij. HARRISSON, T., & B. HARRISSON, 1971, The prehistory of Sabah, Kota Kinabalu: The Sabah Society. Local officials, university faculty, the diving club, and a cultural troupe of dancers and musicians came out to the ship, where U.S. and Filipino scientists spoke about the cruise and the area’s biodiversity, and dancers and musicians performed amid winches and cranes on the crowded deck. Nowadays, its ruins are still known as Kastela, a reminder of former Castilian glory. Erdbeben der Stärke 4.2 - Mindanao Sea, 194 km südwestlich von General Santos, Province of South Cotabato, Soccsksargen, Philippinen, am Montag, 28. SOPHER, D.E., 1977, The Sea Nomads: A study of the maritime boat people of Southeast Asia, Singapore: National Museum. In 1614 Ternate, with the help of VOC forces, conquered Siau, but ten years later the Spaniards came back and held the place until 1677. Scuba divers carried collecting bags filled with glass jars to collect delicate animals near the surface, such as these Aequorea jellyfish. Exploring the Inner Space of the Celebes Sea 2007 September 27 – October 16, 2007 Our expedition takes us to unexplored waters south of the Philippine Islands, in search of the strange — and possibly unknown — fishes, jellyfish, squids, and shrimp that live in the dark deep waters of the Celebes Sea. Under Sultan Shahabuddin (1685-1710), Sulu began to collect tribute from the chiefs in the northern part of Borneo, which was formally considered as part of Brunei territory (Majul 1973: 20). He has been a fisheries scientist with the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries since 1987 and currently heads up the Massachusetts Shark Research Program. Each tiny individual animal pumps water through its body, filtering out food and propelling the brightly luminescent colony forward. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Comm The Sulu-Celebes Sea (SCS) is a large marine ecosystem in the tropical seas of Asia bounded by three countries—Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. It uses its very long legs to “crawl” through the water. 1 See C. Speelman, “Notitie Makasar 651,” Koloniaal Archief, Overgekomen Papieren 1166, fol. BOXER, C.R., 1969, The Portuguese seaborne empire 1415-1825, London: Hutchinson. ], La santé : miroir des sociétés d'Asie du Sud-Est, Vietnam : Histoire et perspectives contemporaines, Recherche en sciences humaines et sociales sur l'Asie du Sud-Est, Affichage des polices de caractères asiatiques, Portail de ressources électroniques en sciences humaines et sociales, http://journals.openedition.org/moussons/docannexe/image/2445/img-1.png, Licence Creative Commons Attribution - Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale - Pas de Modification 4.0 International, Catalogue des 552 revues. 1 The area known as Laut Sulawesi, or Celebes Sea, is a basin enclosed to the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Mindanao, to the east by the Sangir (or Sangihe) and Talaud islands, to the south by the peninsula of North Sulawesi, and to the west by the eastern coast of Sabah. Celebes Sea, Indonesian Laut Sulawesi, sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sea and Mindanao Island, on the east by the Sangi Islands chain, on the south by Celebes (Sulawesi), and on the west by Borneo. Regional Maps: Map of Asia Outline of the Philippines This map shows the outline of (Photo by Larry Madin, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), With the ROV, scientists found this 15-centimeter (6-inch) ctenophore, a diaphanous relative of jellyfish, drifting just above the bottom of the Celebes Sea, about 2,500 meters (1.55 miles) deep. PIGAFETTA, A., 1969, First voyage around the world, Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild XIV. Recherche en sciences humaines sur l’Asie du Sud-Est. The Company was conferred a Royal Charter in 1881, and in 1885 Spain abandoned its claims in Sabah in return for British and German recognition of Spanish sovereignty over Sulu. 28But in 1718 the Spaniards reestablished themselves in Zamboanga. Although some plantations of rice, sugar cane, and tobacco were started, especially near the Kimanis River, production proved to be below expectation. But this information has to be dealt with in a more comprehensive way in order to reconstruct the early history of the area.
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